The adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on behavioral, cognitive, and social development can lead to a range of symptoms referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Attention and cognition problems seen in individuals with a history of prenatal alcohol exposure often resemble those linked to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ). An assessment of these disorders has found that while children with FASD may meet the behavioral criteria for ADHD, their attention difficulties differ in subtle but important respects. Results will be published in the April 2010 issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research and are currently available at Early View.
Children who are mixed-handed, or ambidextrous, are more likely to have mental health, language and scholastic problems in childhood than right- or left-handed children, according to a new study published today in the journal Pediatrics. The researchers behind the study, from Imperial College London and other European institutions, suggest that their findings may help teachers and health professionals to identify children who are particularly at risk of developing certain problems. Around one in every 100 people is mixed-handed. The study looked at nearly 8, 000 children, 87 of whom were mixed-handed, and found that mixed-handed 7 and 8-year old children were twice as likely as their right-handed peers to have difficulties with language and to perform poorly in school.
ADHD, or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, is among the costliest of behavioral disorders. Its combination of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity leads to accidental injuries, school failure, substance abuse, antisocial behavior and more. Yet despite nearly a century of study, the disorder's roots remain mysterious. Much of modern ADHD research has focused on heritability of the condition, and indeed evidence suggests that genes may account for as much as 70 percent of hyperactivity and inattention in children. But that leaves 30 percent unexplained, so recently the focus has shifted to the environment. What is it that triggers an underlying susceptibility and changes it into a full-blown disorder?
Researchers At Freie Universitat Berlin And Queensland Brain Institute In Brisbane See Possibilities For Further Advances In Treatment Of ADHD
An Australian-German team of scientists at Freie Universitat and the Queensland Brain Institute in Brisbane, Australia, has found a way to measure the attention span of a fly. The findings could lead to further advances in the understanding of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ) and autism in humans. Associate Professor Bruno van Swinderen at the Queensland Brain Institute in Brisbane and Dr. Bj√ rn Brembs at Freie Universit√ t combined genetic techniques with brain recordings and behavioral testing. They found different mutations that either increase or decrease a fly's attention span. Using the genetic fruit fly model, Drosophila melanogaster, van Swinderen found that a fly's level of distractibility is finely tuned to allow "normal" behavioral responses to a constantly changing environment.
Can't study. Can't focus. Can't remember what I was supposed to do next. I've got to do this. No, I've got to do that. What was I doing? In college, students with attention deficit/hyperactive disorder face an array of challenges-long days and nights of classes, studying and activities, all of which require increasing amounts of concentration. Dr. Mark Thomas stands ready to help, both at The University of Alabama's Student Health Services and through his research into treating AD/HD on campuses across the country. That treatment includes prescribing drugs that allow students to focus over long periods of time and training in better study habits. "Medications are, far and away, the most effective treatment for ADHD, " says Thomas, a physician in the Student Health Center/University Medical Center, part of UA's College of Community Health Sciences.
Scientists at the Queensland Brain Institute have found a way to measure the attention span of a fly, which could lead to further advances in the understanding of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ) and autism in humans. The researchers combined genetic techniques with brain recordings and found different mutations that either increase or decrease a fly's attention span. Interestingly, all of these mutations produce learning and memory problems. Using the genetic fruit fly model Drosophila melanogaster, lead researcher Associate Professor Bruno van Swinderen found that a fly's level of distractibility is finely tuned to allow "normal" behavioural responses to a constantly changing environment.
KemPharm, Inc. today announced positive results from a Phase 1 clinical trial of KP106, its novel prodrug for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ). KP106, a new chemical entity (NCE) composed of the active pharmaceutical compound d-amphetamine and a ligand, was created using KemPharm's proprietary Ligand Activated Therapy (LAT) prodrug approach. The pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of d-amphetamine released from KP106 is modified versus the profile observed with Vyvanse ® , a currently marketed amphetamine-based stimulant for ADHD. These results suggest that KP106 may have an improved side effect profile and a lower propensity for drug abuse.
Two brain areas fail to connect when children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder attempt a task that measures attention, according to researchers at the UC Davis Center for Mind and Brain and M.I.N.D. Institute. "This is the first time that we have direct evidence that this connectivity is missing in ADHD, " said Ali Mazaheri, postdoctoral researcher at the Center for Mind and Brain. Mazaheri and his colleagues made the discovery by analyzing the brain activity in children with ADHD. The paper appears in the current online issue of the journal Biological Psychiatry. The researchers measured electrical rhythms from the brains of volunteers, especially the alpha rhythm.
The Center for Attention Deficit and Learning Disorders announces today that it has added Hemoencephalography (HEG) to its list of treatment options for patients with ADD/ADHD, learning disabilities, mood disorders and other conditions. HEG utilizes infrared light to measure blood flow and oxygenation levels in the brain during a Neurofeedback session. "The use of HEG in our Neurofeedback training sessions allows us to better target the areas of the brain that are not functioning at normal levels, " said Dr. Sanford J. Silverman, Ph.D., founder of the Center. "The goal of Neurofeedback is to exercise the brain in a specific way, and create new connections between neurons that carry information to other areas of the brain.
A new thought-operated computer system which can reduce the symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( ADHD ) in children will be rolled out across the UK this month. Professor Karen Pine at the University of Hertfordshire's School of Psychology and assistant Farjana Nasrin investigated the effects of EEG (Electroencephalography) biofeedback, a learning strategy that detects brain waves, on ten children with an attention deficit from Hertfordshire schools. They used a system called Play Attention, supplied by not-for-profit community interest company, Games for Life, three times a week for twelve weeks. The system involves the child playing a fun educational computer game whilst wearing a helmet similar to a bicycle helmet.