A leading immunology research institute has validated the long-held and controversial hypothesis that antibodies - usually the "good guys" in the body's fight against viruses - instead contribute to severe dengue virus-induced disease, the La Jolla Institute for Allergy & Immunology announced today. The finding has major implications for the development of a first-ever vaccine against dengue virus, a growing public health threat which annually infects 50 to 100 million people worldwide, causing a half million cases of the severest form. "Our lab has proven the decades old hypothesis that subneutralizing levels of dengue virus antibodies exacerbate the disease, " said La Jolla Institute scientist Sujan Shresta, Ph.
Finding a biological mechanism much like an online social network, scientists have identified the bacterial protein VpsT as the master regulator in Vibrio, the cause of cholera and other enteric diseases. This discovery, now published in the journal Science, provides a major tool to combat enteric disease. For decades, it has been observed that bacteria engage in biofilm formation in nature and the lab. Like the online social network Facebook, free-swimming bacteria ditch the solitary lifestyle to form a biofilm community, but only after they've signaled their intention to do so to others. The protein VpsT receives the invitation and accepts it by starting a cellular program facilitating the process.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are considered to be the most important etiological agents of chronic gastritis. The eradication of H. pylori depends on the combination of antibiotics and acid suppression drugs. Unfortunately, the side effects of antibiotics reduce the curative effect and treatment compliance. Probiotics provides an alternative method which can inhibit H. pylori infection efficiently without antibiotics associated side effects. A research team from China investigated the potential anti-H. pylori and anti-inflammation in vivo effects of two lactobacillus strains from human stomach. Their study was published in the World Journal of Gastroenterology.
The clinical outcome of gastric disease may involve differences in the prevalence or expression of bacterial virulence factors. Contrary to Asian studies, Western studies have disclosed associations between the presence of babA2 gene and gastric cancer. Evidence concerning BabA adhesin-associated genes is insufficient in Costa Rica, where the incidence of gastric cancer is very high, similar to Japan. The babA2 gene, which encodes BabA, may play a role in the development of gastric cancer in the Costa Rican population. A research article published in the World Journal of Gastroenterology addresses this. Using data from 95 H. pylori-positive Costa Rican patients, and 95 H.
Oral thrush is a common fungal infection in the mouth of healthy babies under two years old. It is also called oral candidiasis. The condition is most common in babies around four weeks old. It is rare in the first week of life. Older babies can get it too, but this is less common. In some cases, babies can have repeated infections. Oral infections by the fungus Candida albicans usually appear as thick white or cream-colored deposits on mucosal membranes. Oral thrush in babies is not usually linked with other illnesses or conditions. Symptoms include an oral rash in the infant's mouth, a diaper rash that does not heal with conventional diaper rash treatments and ointments.
Protecting Patients: Study Shows That Johns Hopkins Flu Vaccination Rates Are Twice The National Average
A campaign that makes seasonal flu vaccinations for hospital staff free, convenient, ubiquitous and hard to ignore succeeds fairly well in moving care providers closer to a state of "herd" immunity and protecting patients from possible infection transmitted by health care workers, according to results of a survey at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. In a report published in the Feb. 1 edition of the journal Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, researchers say the rate of seasonal flu vaccination for the 2008-2009 season among health care workers at the Johns Hopkins East Baltimore medical campus, including The Johns Hopkins Hospital, was double the national average.
In the last century a number of major global pandemics had disastrous effects on the world's population as well as causing health care professionals to reassess how we deal with such pandemic situations. More recently, the swine influenza pandemic reminded the world that while pandemics may now be a less-common occurrence, they are still an ever-present threat, despite advances in health and medical science. The Pharmaceutical Society of Australia's 2010 Annual Offshore Conference from 28 April to 7 May 2010 will feature a special presentation on Respiratory Viruses and Pandemics, presented by leading consultant physician at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Professor Paul Seale.
Otitis externa, also known as acute external otitis, swimmer's ear, or tropical ear is an infection of the skin covering the outer ear canal that leads to the ear drum, called the tympanic membrane. It is usually due to bacteria, such as streptococcus, staphylococcus, or pseudomonas. Swimmer's ear usually occurs after excessive water exposure - when water collects in the ear canal, often trapped by wax, the skin becomes soggy; an ideal environment for bacteria to thrive. The protective characteristics of the ear work best when they are dry. People with allergic conditions, such as asthma, psoriasis, rhinitis (allergic) or eczema are significantly more likely to develop otitis externa, compared to others.
Oral thrush (oral candidiasis ) is a condition in which the fungus Candida albicans causes an infection on the lining of the mouth. It is also known as "Thrush". When occurring in the mouth or throat of adults it may also be termed candidosis or moniliasis. Oral thrush causes white lesions, usually on the tongue or inner cheeks. The lesions can be painful and may bleed slightly when they are scraped. The infected mucosa of the mouth may appear inflamed and red. Sometimes the condition may spread to the roof of the mouth, gums, tonsils or the back of the throat. It is also possible to get thrush in other parts of the body, such as the vagina, nappy area or nail folds.
Vesicular stomatitis virus, or VSV, has long been a model system for studying and understanding the life cycle of negative-strand RNA viruses, which include viruses that cause influenza, measles and rabies. More importantly, research has shown that VSV has the potential to be genetically modified to serve as an anti-cancer agent, exercising high selectivity in killing cancer cells while sparing healthy cells, and as a potent vaccine against HIV. For such modifications to occur, however, scientists must have an accurate picture of the virus's structure. While three-dimensional structural information of VSV's characteristic bullet shape and its assembly process has been sought for decades, efforts have been hampered by technological and methodological limitations.